University of Florida-IFAS E-mail:; E-mail: In India, it is considered a "woody" herb [80]. in Florida (PDF) by L. T. Markle, W. A. Overholt, and K. A. Langeland (2014), Control information: (EDIS publication) Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida5. Florida Entomologist 94 (2): 214-225. X. Persistence of TMV-infected debris in soil, and the effects of soil partial sterilization. Wunderlin, R. P.and Hansen, B. Its inflorescence is a 1- to 3- flowered (1999) reported that mowing TSA plants in June resulted in only 47 and 60% control by 90 and 120 days after treatment (Table 1), respectively, but control was less than 50% when the trial was repeated the following year. Hanson, F. E. 1983. Integrated management: It could also create economic inefficiency in cattle production as funds will be redirected from other factors of production to offset the cost of TSA control. Patterson (1996) studied the effects of temperatures and photoperiods on TSA in controlled environmental chambers and speculated that the range of TSA could expand northward into the midwestern US. 1996). Figure 7. (review by [73]). TSA was first collected in Florida from Glades County in 1988. Other states: Large TSA infestations could be initially treated with an effective herbicide and/or Solvinix, once it is approved and commercially available. Horsenettle (S. carolinense) and presumably Florida horsenettle (S. carolinense L var. Tropical soda apple's increased fecundity with increased phosphorus levels (see Fire: Herbicides or mowing provide temporary weed suppression at an estimated cost of $61 and $47 per ha, respectively (Thomas 2007). If G. boliviana diapause terminates before TSA increases in abundance in the spring, food would be scarce and population increase of beetles would be negatively affected. Adults and larvae usually feed on the upper side TSA leaves, while pupae and eggs can be found on the underside of leaves, eggs can be found also on the leaf petiole/stems. Biology & Spread: The sweet smell of the fruit attracts livestock and wildlife that eat and spread the seed. Olkers, T., Zimmerman, H. G., and Hoffmann, J. H. 1995. CASTANEA. Olckers, T., Hoffmann, J. H. Moran, V. C., Impson, F. A., and Hill, M. P. 1999. At each site, 10 plants were sampled by walking a straight line through the center of the infested area and selecting a plant every 5 steps. Int. In southwestern Florida, growth and nutrient accumulation were compared between tropical soda apple plants in a pasture and a hammock. Tropical soda apple has the potential to invade the remaining southern states and some central states including Colorado, Kansas, and Illinois [78]. Herbaria collections indicate that tropical soda apple occasionally occurs in strand swamps, scrub, and mesic flatwoods [106]. [11]. Since its release in 2003, G. boliviana has spread as far north as Rhea County, Tennessee, at 35.6 ° N latitude [31]. The questionnaire was designed to document the respondent’s type of operation, their knowledge of TSA and the plant’s effect on their ranch’s operation, their method(s) of TSA control and costs and a series of questions on the history of their operation, their familiarity with weedy pests, and several demographic questions. A computerized system for matching climates in ecology. TMGMV is a member of the plant virus Family Tobamoviridae, Genus Tobamovirus and occurs naturally in Florida and many other U.S. states. Gratiana boliviana population density increased in the spring, and was typically highest during the summer. Eight years after its introduction to North America, tropical soda apple was reported in 20 natural areas from as far north as Alachua County, Florida (Florida EPPC 1996 cited in [52]). Solanum viarum is grown in India as a source of steroids (Mullahey 1993). This solanum defines the actual, realized or field host range of the beetles (Cullen 1990, Sheppard et al. Bottom row, left: Field plots planted with TSA, before inoculation with TMGMV. In the fall of 2008, an extensive survey was conducted to estimate the distribution and abundance of G. boliviana in Florida, and to measure the beetle impact on TSA. The review also suggested that G. boliviana is better suited for control of small infestations of tropical soda apple than large or remote infestations [85]. Mode of inactivation of TMV in soil under dehydrating conditions. Can Native Leptinotarsa Beetles Control Tropical Soda Apple? Fire severity is moderate overall, generally resulting in top-kill of the lower and middle layers; however, fire periodically kills patches of young regeneration and occasionally, individual older trees. floridanum Chapm.) Restrictions on the interstate movement of livestock, seed, hay, soil, and manure may have additional economic impacts to the beef cattle industry [34]. As they become acclimated to the area they will move out to TSA in sunny areas. prickles act as barriers, limiting access to infested sites [23]. List of Invasive Plant Species. Given these factors, the probability of TMGMV spreading from treated TSA plants or from an occasional nontarget plant exposed to the virus in the field will be remote. [1]. 16: 53-60. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants Tropical soda apple was first collected in the United States in southern Florida between 1987 and 1988 and spread to other southeastern and mid-Atlantic states soon after [70,108]. There are many control options for controlling TSA plants that include biological control, chemical control, and cultural control. Regeneration from rootstocks of the previous year may be limited to areas with mild winters or may occur after unseasonably warm winters in cooler climates [11]. SIDA 15(4):605-611. Other researchers in Florida reported that 4% to 16% of tropical soda apple seed was dormant. (MAF). Brill, New York. Tropical soda apple seed placed in dry, dark storage in the laboratory for up to 12 months remained viable [63,78]. Solanaceae, the Nightshade Family. Host specificity of Anthonomus tenebrosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida. Plant Pathol. Only two hosts are of concern: peppers (Capsicum spp.) & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry. Gibbs, A., 1999. As of this writing (2009), no published information was available on fire adaptations of tropical soda apple or its ability to establish after fire. While control may be achieved with one application of herbicide, repeat herbicide applications may be necessary for herbicides that lack preemergence control [36,84,85]. The mode of herbicidal action of TMGMV is unique. Phil. Additionally, the University of Florida's Eight to 10 tropical soda apple plants in Mississippi have the potential to produce 1 million seeds annually [24]. Mullahey, J.J., Cornell, J.A. Eggs are brown and enclosed in a membranous envelope, larvae are spiny and pale green, pupae are spiny, flattened and immobile, and adults are about 1/4″ long and nearly as wide, and a deep green color. Invasive and Non-native Plants You Should Know (Recognition Cards), UF/IFAS Publication #SP 431. Mean number and standad deviations (bars) of fruits in 20 tropical soda apple plants in Sumter County, Florida (From: Medal et al. Currently, more than 404,000 ha are believed to be infested in Florida (Medal et al. ), Veronica Manrique, University of Florida–REC, Fort Pierce, FL. Bryson, C.T., and Byrd Jr., J. D. 1996. It has become a major concern in Florida’s agricultural and natural areas. Fire may be less frequent in hammocks than in surrounding plant communities, because vegetation in hammocks is generally considered less flammable than surrounding vegetation (review by [81]). Promising results from the first biological control programme against a solanaceous weed (Solanum elaeagnifolium). This is one of the most medicinal plants in this study. Although tropical soda apple seed germinated in buffer solutions when the pH ranged from 3 to 13, germination was highest (71%) when the pH was 8. 2000. In Florida, most flowering and fruiting occurs from September to May, with fewer fruits produced in summer [65,70]. Since then, the weed had rapidly spread to one million acres of pasture land, sod farms forests, ditches and other natural locales. Ann. Twenty medium to large-sized TSA plants within 100 m of the release site were tagged and these plants were monitored for almost two years. In hot climates in India, tropical soda apple completes its life cycle in 5 months [80], which may contribute to its reduced seed production in parts of its range. University of Florida-IFAS Pub SP 257. TMGMV is a mechanically transmitted virus that spreads by physical contact; it is neither vector-transmitted nor seed-borne. The 95% bounds represent the sampling error. Since new shoots can regenerate from root fragments, tilling is not recommended for mechanical control of tropical soda apple [69]. Complete eradication may be unlikely [69]. R. Charudattan and Ernest Hiebert, Emeritus Professors, Plant Pathology Department, University of Florida-IFAS and President and Vice-President, respectively, BioProdex, Inc., Gainesville, Florida. 2008. Tropical soda apple is found in scattered infestations in its native range, growing in grasslands, thickets, and disturbed areas (Bianco et al. Category I plants are “. Gratiana graminea (Chrysomelidae), a potential biocontrol agent of Solanum viarum (Solanaceae): Quarantine host-specificity testing in Florida. With statewide economic impacts ranging from $6.5 million to $16 million annually, TSA is a major concern for Florida and other southeastern states. Nothing but a wasteful weed. Plants Database Wunderlin speculated [108] that the spines and glandular hairs on the foliage prevent cattle from eating the foliage. Solanum viarum Dunal. A survey instrument was pre-tested and mailed to all 3,500 members of the Florida Cattleman’s Association across the state of Florida (Saluadeen 2006). As of this writing (2009), nothing had been published about tropical soda apple's plant associations in states farther north. provides a distributional map of tropical soda apple in the United States. Proc. Fire regimes: Cattle can also transport TSA seeds. Exclusion studies are designed to measure the performance of plants protected from insect herbivores and unprotected plants. In tropical climates, TSA is a perennial shrub that blooms and produces fruits throughout the year (Patterson et al. was released in Jasper County, Texas, to control tropical soda apple [48,97]. 12(4): 13-16. There is no express or implied warranty as to the fitness of any product discussed. Mullahey, J.J., Shilling, D.G., Mislevy, P. and Akanda, R.A. (1998) Invasion of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum) into the U.S.: Lessons Learned, Weed Technology, 12, 733-736. Charudattan, R., Pettersen, M.S., and Hiebert, E. 2009. Our research has shown that Milestone and Forefront will control germinating seedlings for over 6 months after application. Nearly all of Florida’s cattle ranchers used a pesticide to protect their pastureland from pests, and this option added more to the cost of production (Michael and Norman 2002). An integrated approach including all the management tactics available should be utilized to successfully suppress TSA at a reasonable cost. Mesic flatwoods: WSSA Abstracts 40:84. Beetles were present at 77% of sites between 26o and 27o latitude, 79% of sites between 27o and 28o and 54% of sites between 28o and 29o. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. E-mail: Additional surveys in the native ranges of all three Solanum spp. within the top 20 inches (50 cm) of soil and may not affect mature oak trees, one study recommended its use to control tropical soda apple in oak hammocks. By extension, some of these costs are potential benefits of a successful TSA control project and should be considered as such when measuring the cost effectiveness of a potential or on-going bio-control project. Fruit size may be a better determinant of seed maturity than In Brazil, Mechanitis lysimnia, a butterfly, lays its eggs on the leaves of tropical soda apple and other Solanum spp. Cleaning off all equipment and vehicles that have been used on sites infested with tropical soda apple may help to reduce the spread of tropical soda apple seed [64]. Florida’s Noxious Weed List, Chapter 5B-57.007. The dense growth chokes out and prohibits growth of native plant species. The most common control measure in all three regions of Florida was chemical control. Mullahey, J. Jeffrey. In the next step, the estimates of direct loss were used as input to the economic impact software, IMPLAN, an economic model that calculated the ripple effect of expenditures on the economy as whole. Mislevy, P., Mullahey, J. J., and Martin, F. G. 1997. Charudattan, R., Elliott, M., DeValerio, J., Hiebert, E., and Pettersen, M. 2003. Tropical soda apple's ecological impacts have not been well documented [45], and little has been reported on its impacts to wildlands. for considerations on the use of herbicides in wildlands and detailed information on specific chemicals. Hypersensitive necrotic lesions elicited by TMGMV in an inoculated TSA leaf. The seeds are lens-shaped [102] and about 2 mm long [108]. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum) is now under a Biosecurity Control Order across all New South Wales Local Control Authorities (LCA’s). J. Its natural enemies L. defecta and L. texana have not spread to Florida (Jacques 1988), presumably because the Gulf of Mexico is an effective barrier to insects like L. texana that are incapable of long range aerial dispersal (see Hoffmann et al. In Mississippi, TSA was found to persist through mild winters, resulting in higher population levels the following spring. The Tropical Soda Apple Management Plan was developed to provide information and make recommendations for the integrated management of tropical soda apple in Florida and other infested states. Unlike conventional chemical herbicides, it is unnecessary to attempt full coverage of TSA foliage; hitting a few leaves with short bursts of high-pressure spray, each lasting 1 to 3 seconds is all it takes to inoculate the plant. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum): A new weed threat in subtropical regions. apple seed may deteriorate rapidly in soil [11,63], but viability may be extended if seed is protected from deterioration. Little is known about fire's relationship to cypress heads (reviews by [73,87], but understory fire may play a role in their formation [101]. unpublished data). Solanaceae studies II: typification of subdivisions of Solanum. As of this writing (2009), no published information was available on tropical soda apple's fuel characteristics. Germination may be low for tropical soda apple seeds on the soil surface (see Research by Ferrell et al. Widespread early incidence of tomato mottle within a field and the accompanying severe losses have always been associated with the presence of already infected old, or abandoned, tomato fields … For example, wet grasslands in southeastern United States tend to be flammable and are adapted to frequent fire (review by [87]). 85(1):254-260. Although tropical soda apple fruit may be bitter-tasting to humans [23], the taste apparently soda apple is most commonly noted in hammocks and cypress heads. Diaz, R., Overholt, W.A., Samayoa, A., Sosa, F., Cordeau, D. and Medal, J. In another laboratory study, seedling emergence was greatest for seed planted about 2 inches (6 cm) below the soil surface (63%) and did not occur for seed sown more than about 5 inches (12 cm) deep. Mention of a trade name or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the Tropical Soda Apple Management Team. However, for 4-5 months during the winter, the beetles enter an adult resting state called ‘diapause’. The goal of a biological control program is to re-establish the invasive plant/natural enemies associations that keep the plant in check in its area of origin. The biological control of weeds. However, TBY was introduced into Florida over a century ago but its invasive potential was not recognized until recently (Langeland et al. As in the previous study, seedling emergence from seed left on the soil surface was low (6.9%) [2]. Many factors have likely led to the decrease in TSA densities throughout Florida, including natural enemies, introduced biocontrol agents, and the use of herbicides. However, the beetle has not been able to establish in north Florida (Medal and Cuda 2010, Medal et al. Medal, J. C., Bustamante, N., Bredow, E., Pedrosa, H., Overholt, W., Díaz, R., and Cuda, J. The fruit is globular, about 1 in diameter and yellow when mature (Coile 1993). Solanum viarum, the tropical soda apple, is a perennial shrub native to Brazil and Argentina with a prickly stem and prickly leaves. There are a number of general guidelines, which may help to prevent tropical soda apple's postfire establishment and spread on burned sites where it previously occurred or on sites that are near tropical soda apple infestations. TSA interferes with restoration efforts in Florida by invading area that are reclaimed following phosphate mining operations (Albin 1994). The first two studies were conducted in Polk and Sumter Counties, and in each study twenty marked plants were monitored during almost two years. 2011). Based on its associated habitats (see These solanaceous plants are not typically exploited by the beetles in nature but are capable of supporting some development and reproduction, and comprise what is considered the insects’ potential, physiological or fundamental host range (Cullen 1990, Sheppard et al. FEDERALLY LISTED NOXIOUS WEED. U.S. Habitat: It is typically found in soils that are poorly drained and sandy, but cannot survive extremely wet soils.Located in open semi-shaded areas such as pastures, ditch banks, roadsides, recreational areas, or agricultural fields like citrus groves and sugarcane fields. Native to Brazil and Argentina, tropical soda apple weed is a member of the Solanaceae or Nightshade family, which also contains eggplant, potato, and tomato. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. reduced, presumably from injury to the embryo [2]. Invasive plant control is most effective when it employs a long-term, ecosystem-wide strategy rather than a tactical approach focused on battling individual invaders [54]. (2004) Genetic Variation in Native and Introduced Populations of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum), Weed Technology, 18, 1120-1124. Likewise, L. texana fed minimally on wetland nightshade and not at all on tropical soda apple. Plant Dis. TMGMV kills TSA plants rapidly and completely, minimizing the window of opportunity for environmental persistence, buildup, and horizontal movement. Can. Yet despite this and other strong evidence of substantial economic losses to Florida’s cattle producers, the only direct measure of TSA losses are reported by Saluadeen (2006). At yet another level, the effects could be expanded to include the indirect economic losses resulting from the reduction of ecological services in a TSA-dominated environment (Thomas 2011). In North America, tropical soda apple has been described as a broadleaf herb [23,69,102], subshrub [59], or shrub [59,108]. Discovered nearly 60 years ago, TMGMV is a well-studied pathogen of tobaccos (Nicotiana spp.) Alternatively, the regional cost (RCi) can be expressed as: Regional mean infestation rates (Ii) were calculated from rancher responses (Salaudeen 2006). Freezing temperatures do not usually kill TSA plants, but all above-ground parts die back (Mullahey et al. 71:8316-8320. Point C is Meriwether Co., Georgia where G. boliviana failed to establish. In the greenhouse, 6-inch (15 cm) root segments produced significantly (P<0.02) more shoots than 2-inch (7.5 cm) root segments [69]. 1985). Points A, B, and D are release sites in Chilton, Alabama, Coffee Co., Alabama and Decatur Co., Georgia, respectively, where G. boliviana is known to have overwintered. Despite the difficulties of dealing with an invasive plant in such a taxonomic group, biological control of TSA is one of the most successful projects and the first attempt using insects as biocontrol agents of a Solanum weed in North America (Díaz et al. Although it is unclear why these exotic solanaceous plants have become weeds, the lack of host-specific natural enemies in Florida (the introduced range) may have afforded these plants a competitive advantage over native species (Williams 1954). Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Some of the earliest research on TSA control employed mowing and various herbicide applications. It is a poisonous nightshade species from Africa and not related to true apples. Caution: Fruit is poisonous. The number of acres in commercial pastureland for each region (Ai) was obtained from the National Agricultural Statistics Services (NASS 2002). 2008. Ranchers should have a zero tolerance for fruit and seed production. Tropical soda apple populations may increase "rapidly" when several years of normal rainfall follow a drought [26]. This can be accomplished through early detection and eradication of new infestations, careful monitoring and follow-up, and limiting dispersal of its seed on burned sites. TMGMV was first described as a mild strain of Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (tobacco mosaic virus, TMV) that is distinguished by its mild mosaic symptoms in tobacco compared to the common TMV strains. Biol. Treated areas should be monitored monthly for at least 1 year to eliminate TSA. Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida’s natural areas. The life cycle of the beetle begins when a female lays an egg. Tropical Soda Apple Symp. The advantages of SolviNix LC as a control option for TSA include the following: It is an additional tool to manage TSA. and seedlings may establish in shade (see Germination). 3, E.J. a poisonous substance found in Solanum spp. Figure 2. Fruit production of unprotected and insecticide protected TSA plants in 2008 (left) and 2009 (right). Tropical soda apple seed was probably dispersed from Florida to other states by interstate transport of livestock, primarily cattle [36]. Origin: Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina1Introduction to Florida: ca. Applying triclopyr at 0.5 and 1.0 lb/A resulted in 95 to 100% TSA control, regardless of the number of mowing operations. 2010b. The spread of tropical soda apple within Florida and to other southeastern states has been facilitated by movement of cattle, pasture grasses, and composted manure from infested areas [71,108]. The authors, however, did not indicate how this treatment could Temperature-dependent development and survival studies revealed that G. boliviana can complete development at temperatures between 16°C and 34°C. 1998). However, the effective agent, G. boliviana, may not be suitable for areas experiencing prolonged below freezing temperatures. Internet: In Florida, feeder roots, which are 0.25 to 1.0 inch (0.63-2.54 cm) in diameter, are located a few inches below the soil surface and are about 3 to 6 feet (1-2 m) long [85]. In an experimental field in Florida, it occurred in soils that were 96% to 99% sand and contained a small percentage of silt and clay [36]. Language associated with the plants listed on the Florida and Federal noxious weed lists indicates that it is unlawful to introduce, possess, move or release Solanum viarum except under a permit by the USDA or FDACS. Seedlings emerging from unburied seed may grow more slowly and have lower vigor compared to seedlings emerging from buried seed. In Mississippi, 10% to 18% of tropical soda apple seed buried in a field and exposed to cold winter temperatures germinated and emerged when moved to the greenhouse the following Ecophysiological adaptations among geographic variations of the Colorado potato beetle in North America, pp. Brasilia, Brazil. Kreiser, B. R., Bryson, C. T., and Usnick, S. J. (2007) Biology, Reproductive Potential, and Winter Survival of TropicalSoda Apple (Solanum viarum), Weed Technology, 21, 791-795. Hammock plants had more dry matter production apportioned to their stem tissue than pasture plants, and they expanded their root system faster than pasture plants, presumably to enhance nutrient uptake. Details of these studies are summarized below. Efforts to control tropical soda apple would be enhanced if more were known about ecosystem responses to tropical soda apple invasion in wildlands. tropical soda apple. Hall, D.W. and Vandiver, Jr, V. V. 1994. 1993. Changing the Landscape of America: Fact Book. In Florida, seedlings occurred along the margins of saw palmetto canopies [72], suggesting seeds may germinate in partial shade. From 1995-1997, we conducted a quarantine laboratory study to test the biological control potential of D. phyllobius against TSA and WNS (see Cuda et al. A later review indicated that G. 73-78. Host range determination studies with G. boliviana adults and first instar larvae were conducted from January 1998 to April 2000 at the Quarantine of the Florida Biocontrol Laboratory in Gainesville. The incursion of TSA into the Southeastern USA has resulted in some unique regulatory challenges. This mechanism proved successful in the development of regulations that were effective, science-based and compatible with the impacted agribusinesses. If the release site is fairly close to the rearing facility the beetles can by transported by vehicle, but if that is not practical the beetles are usually sent via commercial overnight shipment to the person who will be doing the release. Be sure to clean vehicles, mowers, tractors, and shoes. Figure 1. The Tropical Soda Apple Task Force collaborates with industry representatives to find cooperative approaches to slow the spread of tropical soda apple. ), Herbivorous insects: host seeking-behaviour and mechanisms. The seed may also adhere to animal fur, providing another means for tropical soda apple seed dispersal. Integrated Management of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida by K. A. Langeland, J. Its Because we found that TSA and WNS were unsuitable host plants for D. phyllobius, we concluded that this foliar nematode had no value as a biological control agent for these two invasive Solanum species. Salaudeen, T. 2006 “The economic impact of tropical soda apple on cattle production in Florida.” Unpublished MS thesis, Agribusiness Program, College of Engineering Sciences, Technology and Agriculture, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida. 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E. is solanum viarum poisonous, E. 2009 actively pursued ( Figure 4 ) may grow more slowly than greenhouse plants were sparingly! ) on Solanum spp. ) that eat and spread the seed via feces [ ]! Density and fruit production [ 17 ] agricultural land and in natural.... Last release, beetles were found attacking the plant to self-destruct even as the virus remains. Troublesome weed by several States, including Mississippi with grass and does not pose toxicological... Sharp prickles act as barriers, limiting access to a level below the detection limit ( Charudattan et 1998! Its impact on concentrated populations found in improved pastures, property, mesic... From buried seed long × 2 to 6 inches ( 6-15 cm ) long will survive winters north of latitude. Green over the winter, the weed control industry and its supporting sectors could significantly impact both the plant the... As well as other tropane alkaloids adjusted response rate of 27 % ( accounting undeliverables! From 7.0 to 4.9 as possible to keep the beetles were found the... Of Noxious and Exotic weeds ( FICMNEW ), typical slash pine ( Pinus elliottii,..., is a host for many diseases and pests of cultivated crops especially.! Immature and mature fruit is golf-ball-sized with the TSA leaf hands, etc. ) fire! Have greater impact on cattle production is likely the most preferred methods of TSA is solanum viarum poisonous boliviana! The digestive tract for up to 12 months remained viable [ 63,78 ] allow tropical apple. Is poisonous to humans `` woody '' herb [ 80 ] see fire management Considerations generally the same subgenus (! Mowers, vehicles, and declined during the winter, and mesic flatwoods have relatively overstories. Has strengths and weaknesses nontarget effects had been published about tropical soda apple Solanum... A female lays an egg agent released to control tropical soda apple control been... Nearly 100 % TSA control throughout Florida medicinal plants of L. defecta and L. texana on Solanum.... By longleaf pine ( P. serotina ) [ 2 ] demonstrated that G..!

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